Although the opportunities are just as extensive as in offshore, the challenges operators face onshore vary profoundly. Spanning from mature fields, where production began in the 1980s, to as of yet unexploited onshore frontiers, particularly with unconventional resources, all operators are likely to face their own unique challenges. EOR and IOR techniques will be crucial to maximize production from those fields, but safety and environment commitment must not be forgotten. Adequate management of production, successful operation and correct social approach will heavily depend on IOCs and Independent companies offering their knowledge and experience for this not so explored sector of the industry.