After years of primarily focusing on upstream investment and a monopoly that lasted for 76 years, Mexico's infrastructure is inadequate to meet the growing demand for refined products. With six refineries and a total capacity of 1.6 billion b/d, the problem of the country’s refining industry is not so much capacity but production efficiency. In 2015 production efficiency only reached 61 percent, and the percentage of unscheduled shutdowns reached almost 13 percent.

Although operational excellence represents an opportunity for improvement, downtime is also related to supply chain inefficiencies, as 74 percent of the unscheduled shutdowns were related to the supply of services. In its 2017-2021 Business Plan, PEMEX stated its commitment to revamping its refineries through alliances focused on auxiliary activities and operation and maintenance, areas in which private companies see a bright future.